Jun 05, 2019

「Nanoparticles in the ionosphere of Earth and other solar system objects」
Prof. Ingrid Mann


講演題目: Nanoparticles in the ionosphere of Earth and other solar system objects
講 師 : Prof. Ingrid Mann
      UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway
日 時 : 令和元年6月5日 (水) 16:30~18:00
場 所 : 北海道大学理学部 8号館 2階 コスモスタジオ
共 催 : 宇宙理学セミナー
要 旨 :
The upper atmosphere at the transition to space contains small nanometer-sized dust particles. The particles originate from the entry of the cosmic dust into the atmosphere, a process where a large fraction of material evaporates and then re-condenses; at low temperature water ice condenses on the dust. These dust/ice particles are often electrically charged and interact with the other charged components of the atmosphere that at this altitude is partially ionized. Through its charge the dust also plays a role in atmospheric chemistry. The dust particles can be observed with rocket measurements, optically and with radar. Charged nanodust, below the size that is observed optically leads to the formation of strong radar echoes (PMSE, for Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes). The dust is carried in the surrounding neutral atmosphere which is governed by solar radiative forcing from above and from below by atmospheric waves, notably gravity, tidal, and planetary waves. They shape the observed PMSE wavy structures. PMSE are observed independent from weather conditions, which makes them a good target for long-term studies. Advanced observations will be possible with the multi-static phased array radar EISCAT_3D that is at present under construction in Norther Europe (cf. McCrea et al. 2015). At the same time, the ionosphere can be considered a dusty plasma where the dust participates and gives rise to plasma collective effects. The presence of charged dust influences the charge balance. In many cases, the dust component is inferred from reduced electron abundance. This is observed from sounding rockets and at other solar system objects with Langmuir probes from spacecraft. A key issue for understanding observational data are the interactions and charging rates and for nanodust particles (Mann et al. 2014) those are different from larger particles. McCrea, I., et al. (2015) Prog. Earth Planet. Sci. 2, 21, doi:10.1186/s40645-015-0051-8. Mann, I., Meyer?Vernet, N., Czechowski, A. (2014) Physics Reports 536, 1-39.
世話人  倉本 圭

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